Numerous papers related to our technology have been published and described in leading peer-reviewed scientific publications.  A selected bibliography is listed below:

“Trans-spinal direct current stimulation in spasticity: A literature mini-review”, Estudillo-Guera et al., Frontiers in Stroke, July 2022.

“Non-invasive treatment of patients with upper extremity spasticity following stroke using paired trans-spinal and peripheral direct current stimulation”, Paget-Blanc et al., Bioelectronic Medicine, July 2019.

“Repeated anodal trans‐spinal direct current stimulation results in long‐term reduction of spasticity in mice with spinal cord injury”, W. Mekhael et al., J. Physiol., January 2019.

“Effects of cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation on lower urinary tract function in normal and spinal cord injury mice with overactive bladder.”, Z. Ahmed, J. Neural Eng., October 2017.

“Trans-spinal direct current stimulation modulates migration and proliferation of adult newly born spinal cells”, S. Samaddar et al., J. Appl. Physiol., December 2016.

“Modulation of gamma and alpha spinal motor neuron activity by trans-spinal DC stimulation”, Z. Ahmed, Physiol. Rep., February 2016.

“Trans-spinal direct current stimulation modifies spinal cord excitability through synaptic and axonal mechanisms”, Z. Ahmed, Physiol. Rep., Sept 2014.

“Trans-spinal direct current stimulation alters muscle tone in mice with and without spinal cord injury with spasticity”, Z. Ahmed, J. Neuroscience, Jan 2014.

“Effects of cathodal trans-spinal DCS on mouse spinal network and complex movements”, Z. Ahmed, J. Neuroscience, Sept. 2013.

“Electrophysiological characterization of spin-sciatic and cortico-sciatic associative plasticity: modulation by trans-spinal direct current and effects on recovery after spinal cord injury in mice”, Z. Ahmed, J. Neuroscience, March 2013.

“Modulation of soleus H reflex by spinal DC stimulation in humans”, JC Lamy et al., J. Neurophysiol., May 2012.

“Trans-spinal direct current enhances corticospinal output and stimulation-evoked release of glutamate analog”, Z. Ahmed and A. Wieraszko, J. Appl. Physiol., May 2012.

“Trans-spinal direct current stimulation modulates motor cortex-induced muscle contraction in mice”, Z. Ahmed, J. Appl. Physiol., May 2011.