In the past two decades, there has been rapid acceleration in the development and use of neuromodulation technologies for the treatment of specific functional and behavioral disorders. Neuromodulation utilizes direct electrical or electromagnetic stimulation of specific regions and segments of the human nervous system to activate or inhibit downstream physiological processes. Most of the neuromodulation technologies that have gained regulatory approval to date are invasive, requiring surgical implantation and often used as a last resort. They require hospitalization, are expensive, and cannot easily be repositioned should the delivered stimulation lack efficacy. A number of newer non-invasive cortical stimulation technologies (trans-cranial magnetic stimulation) have been developed, but are currently only approved to treat behavioral disorders, and not neuromotor conditions.
Alternative approaches being advanced by other companies to treat conditions of disrupted neural pathways are based on stimulation at only a single-site, typically the brain or spinal cord, stimulated either invasively or non-invasively. At PathMaker Neurosystems, we have pioneered a proprietary approach based on multi-site direct current stimulation (Multi-Site DCS) that enables modulation of physiology in a manner not possible with single-site stimulation.