Therapeutic indications

PathMaker Neurosystems has developed a first-in-class neuromodulation platform that is broadly applicable to a number of serious neurological disorders that currently have few effective interventions.  We are working to bring a new treatment modality based on neuromodulation into clinical practice, and expect that our products will offer new non-invasive treatment options for patients with:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease, Charcot’s disease) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons in spinal cord and brain. ALS causes muscle weakness, paralysis, spasticity and eventual death, typically within 2-5 years of diagnosis. While the majority of cases (90-95%) are sporadic and occur in patients without known familial history of ALS, the remaining 5-10% of cases are familial.  Recent research has established important links between ALS and motor neuron hyperexcitability, providing new potential avenues for intervention.  ALS affects over 30,000 people in the US, and approximately 450,000 patients worldwide.


Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the United States, and one of the top 5 leading causes of death.  Stroke occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is compromised, leading to a lack of oxygen to the tissues and neuronal cell death, which can result in permanent deficits in movement, speech, memory and cognition, depending on the location and severity of the lesion.  Many patients have paralysis and muscle weakness as a result of stroke, and many patients also develop spasticity.  In the US, there are over 7,000,000 stroke survivors, and almost 800,000 patients a year suffer new or recurrent stroke.

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological disease of young adults, and is a chronic demyelinating inflammatory disease of the human central nervous system.  MS results in characteristic lesions that can occur in the brain and/or spinal cord, leading to disruptions in pathways and reduced control over neuromotor and autonomic functions.  Motor weakness and spasticity are often seen in patients.  MS affects over 450,000 patients in the US and over 3.5 million patients worldwide.

Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common developmental disability amongst children in the United States, and encompasses a heterogenous group of motor impairment syndromes caused by a non-progressive lesion of the brain.  The cause is typically unknown, and the lesion can arise either pre-natally, peri-natally or post-natally.  Patients can have mild functional impairments or severely limited mobility and motor control.  Many patients have spasticity and hypertonia.  CP is a long-term chronic medical condition that requires long-term supportive care services as well as physiotherapy and occupational therapy. In the US, approximately 764,000 children and adults are living with CP, and it is estimated another 8,000-10,000 babies develop CP each year.

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is caused by traumatic damage to the spinal cord leading to deficits in motor, sensory or autonomic functions.  Leading causes of SCI include motor vehicle accidents, workplace injuries, sporting injuries and violence.  Patients typically have paralysis and muscle weakness below the level of injury, and often have spasticity and autonomic dysfunction develop.  In the United States, there are over 1,200,000 patients with SCI, and an estimated 10,000 new cases of SCI occur each year.

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the result of a blow to the brain, most often caused by vehicle collisions, falls, or violence. The degree of recovery varies depending on the severity and localization of the injury, and survivors of severe injury will commonly present motor impairments such as loss of coordination, spasticity or paralysis. Each year, TBI affects 69 million people worldwide. In the US alone, 1.5 million people will suffer a TBI, and 85,000 will survive with long-term disabilities. Over 5.3 million people in the country live with disabilities caused by a past TBI.