Trans-Spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS)
PathMaker Neurosystems is commercializing recent breakthrough advances in neuromodulation built on PathMaker Coordinated Multi-site Neurostimulation™. Modulation of neural activity is accomplished entirely non-invasively through precisely sequenced stimulation at multiple sites, enabled by directionally-controllable spinal level modulation using trans-spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS). Peer-reviewed studies published in leading journals have demonstrated that direct current stimulation of the spinal cord results in modulation of spinal circuits and signals traversing between brain and muscle. A cross-sectional representation is shown below depicting the placement of electrodes in relation to the spinal cord in tsDCS. Anode (shown in red) is positioned dorsally and placed on the skin covering the spinal cord at the desired spinal level. Cathode (shown in black) is positioned ventrally and placed on abdomen. Current flows from anode to cathode, resulting in an area of reduced neural activation within the spinal cord. By reversing the polarity of the electrodes, an area of increased neural activation can be achieved.
Depending on the stimulations and polarities used, tsDCS can induce either an area of increased or decreased neural activation within the spinal cord. We can therefore bi-directionally modulate spinal cord excitability. This is combined with neurostimulation at peripheral and cortical sites to enable proprietary modulation of physiology that is not possible with single-site stimulation.